Boeing and NASA continue to investigate Starliner valve problem

NASA and Boeing are targeting the first half of 2022 to launch the rescheduled test flight of the CST-100 Starliner commercial crew vehicle as engineers continue to investigate a valve problem that postponed the mission two months ago.

In an Oct. 8 statement, NASA said engineers had managed to free all but one of 13 stuck propellant valves in the Starliner spacecraft. Those stuck valves forced the postponement of Boeing’s uncrewed Orbital Flight Test (OFT) 2 mission in early August. The one remaining valve still stuck closed is kept in that state deliberately “to preserve forensics for direct root cause analysis.”

The analysis has yet to determine the root cause for the stuck valves, but NASA stated Boeing believed the most probable cause was interaction between moisture and nitrogen tetroxide propellant, a cause Boeing officials offered in August. The source of the moisture was not included in the statement, which added that “although some verification work remains underway, our confidence is high enough that we are commencing corrective and preventive actions.”

As part of those efforts, Boeing technicians partially disassembled three valves last month and will remove three others in the coming weeks for inspection. Those efforts will determine how Boeing will prepare the spacecraft for a new launch attempt, with options ranging from “minor refurbishment” of components in the Starliner’s service module to replacing the service module entirely.

NASA confirmed in the statement that the next OFT-2 launch attempt will not be this year. “The team currently is working toward opportunities in the first half of 2022 pending hardware readiness, the rocket manifest, and space station availability,” the agency said.

It had already been clear that OFT-2 was unlikely to fly this year because of both the ongoing investigation and other missions to the station. “The timeline and the manifest through the end of the year is pretty tight right now,” said Kathy Lueders, NASA associate administrator for space operations, at a Sept. 21 briefing. “My gut is that it would probably be more likely to be next year, but we’re still working through that timeline.”

Steve Stich, NASA commercial crew program manager, offered the same assessment during an Oct. 6 briefing about the upcoming SpaceX Crew-3 commercial crew mission. “There’s really not an opportunity for OFT-2 to fly this year,” he said. “From a station perspective, it would be some time early next year where a window would open up for OFT-2.”

Starliner would dock at one of two ports, one of which will be occupied by a Crew Dragon spacecraft. The other port will be occupied by a cargo Dragon spacecraft starting in early December, likely until early January. A commercial Crew Dragon spacecraft, flying the Ax-1 mission for Axiom Space, is scheduled to launch Feb. 21 and spend a week docked to the station using that other port.

Stich said at the Oct. 6 briefing it was too soon to narrow down a launch date for OFT-2, given the uncertainties about vehicle readiness. “We really need to get to a root cause on the valve issue on the service module,” he said. “Once we do that, we’ll have a little more certainty on the path forward of when OFT-2 is, and then from that, where CFT is.” CFT, or Crew Flight Test, will be a crewed test flight with up to three NASA astronauts on board that follows OFT-2.

The delays mean that more than two years will elapse between the original OFT mission in December 2019, which suffered several software and communications problems that truncated the flight, and OFT-2. SpaceX, meanwhile, has conducted since OFT the Demo-2 crewed test flight and the Crew-1 and Crew-2 operational missions. The next NASA Crew Dragon mission, Crew-3, is scheduled for launch Oct. 30, with Crew-4 and Crew-5 planned for 2022.

At the briefing, NASA defended Boeing despite those extended delays. “We have not lost confidence in the Boeing team. The team is doing an incredible job of working through the root cause on the valve issue,” Stich said. “I have every bit of confidence that they’re going to figure out what the problem is and they’ll rectify it and we’ll get back to flight really soon.”,50335693.html


NASA investigating issue with Lucy solar array

Engineers are investigating why one of the two solar arrays on NASA’s Lucy spacecraft may have failed to lock into place when deployed after launch Oct. 16.

In an Oct. 17 statement, NASA said that while the spacecraft is healthy, one of the two circular solar panels “may not be fully latched” after its deployment. The solar arrays deployed in the first half-hour after separation from the Centaur upper stage of the Atlas 5 rocket that launched it early Oct. 16.

Both solar panels are generating power, the agency stated, and there are no other problems with the spacecraft. “In the current spacecraft attitude, Lucy can continue to operate with no threat to its health and safety,” NASA said in the statement. “The team is analyzing spacecraft data to understand the situation and determine next steps to achieve full deployment of the solar array.”

“This team has overcome many challenges already and I am confident they will prevail here as well,” Thomas Zurbuchen, NASA associate administrator for science, tweeted Oct. 17.

Lucy’s two solar panels are each 7.3 meters in diameter. Stored in a folded configuration, they were designed to unfurl “like Chinese fans,” said Joan Salute, associate director for flight programs in NASA’s planetary science division, at a prelaunch briefing Oct. 14.

The arrays have a combined 51 square meters of solar cells. That large area is needed since the spacecraft will be flying out to Jupiter’s distance from the sun, where the sunlight is only a few percent as powerful as at Earth. “That enables Lucy to travel further away from the sun than any other solar-powered spacecraft to date,” said Katie Oakman, Lucy structures and mechanisms lead at Lockheed Martin Space, at the Oct. 14 briefing. Lockheed was the prime contractor for Lucy, although the solar arrays were built by Northrop Grumman.

In the vicinity of the Earth, Lucy’s panels can generate 18 kilowatts of power. However, when flying by the Trojan asteroids that are the destination of the mission, the arrays will produce only 500 watts of power, still sufficient to operate the spacecraft and its three main instruments.

She added there was no specific design requirement for circular arrays versus more conventional rectangular ones, but that those offered the most area while fitting in the confines of the Atlas payload fairing. “This particular design really enables us to stow up closely and tightly next to the spacecraft for launch,” she said. “Having any particular shape other than this really unique design wouldn’t enable us to get to that 51-meter-squared of active cell area and still fit within the launch vehicle fairing.”

It’s unclear if the problem will affect other work to check out the spacecraft after its launch. That includes deployment of the instrument pointing platform, on which the three major instruments are mounted, which is scheduled for about two days after launch.,50335693.html


Russian Cosmonaut and Filmmakers Return to Earth From Space Station

Russian cosmonaut Oleg Novitskiy of Roscosmos and Russian actress Yulia Peresild and Russian producer-director Klim Shipenko landed on Earth at 12:35 a.m. EDT Sunday, October 17 in Kazakhstan (10:35 a.m. Kazakhstan time), southeast of the remote town of Dzhezkazgan. The trio departed the International Space Station in their Soyuz MS-18 spacecraft at 9:14 p.m.

Novitskiy arrived at the space station on April 9 and returns to Earth after 191 days in space on his third mission that spanned 3,056 orbits of Earth and 80.9 million miles. During the mission, he completed three spacewalks totaling 22 hours, 38 minutes. He has now logged 531 days in space on his three flights.

A veteran cosmonaut and two Russian filmmakers returned to Earth from the space station on Sunday just after midnight Eastern time landing in Kazakhstan. Credit: NASA

Peresild and Shipenko arrived at the station on October 5 as spaceflight participants for 12 days of filming their movie, “Challenge,” under a commercial agreement between Roscosmos and Moscow-based media entities.

The trio will return by Russian helicopters to the recovery staging city in Karaganda, Kazakhstan, before boarding a Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center aircraft to return to their training base in Star City, Russia.

Soyuz MS-18 Crew Ship Departs Space Station

The Soyuz MS-18 crew ship departs the space station with three Russian crew members on their way home to Earth. Credit: NASA TV

Remaining aboard the station is the seven-person crew of Expedition 66 with station commander Thomas Pesquet of ESA (European Space Agency), NASA astronauts Shane Kimbrough, Megan McArthur, and Mark Vande Hei, JAXA (Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency) astronaut Akihiko Hoshide, and Roscosmos cosmonauts Anton Shkaplerov and Pyotr Dubrov.

Later this month, NASA’s SpaceX Crew-3 members – NASA astronauts Raja Chari, Tom Marshburn, and Kayla Barron as well as ESA (European Space Agency) astronaut Matthias Maurer – will join the Expedition 66 members aboard the station. Crew-3 will be the third long-duration mission to fly as part of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program, continuing to provide the capability of regularly launching humans from American soil.

Soyuz MS-18 Crew Ship

The Soyuz MS-18 crew ship is pictured relocating from the Rassvet module to the Nauka multipurpose laboratory module on September 28, 2021. Credit: NASA

In November 2020, the International Space Station surpassed a 20-year milestone of continuous human presence, providing opportunities for unique technological demonstrations and research that help prepare for long-duration missions to the Moon and Mars while also improving life on Earth. To date, 246 people from 19 countries have visited the orbiting laboratory that has hosted nearly 3,000 research investigations from researchers in 108 countries and areas.,50333887.html–173380804/–173380804/–173380804/–173380804/–173380804/–173380804/


Developing Artificial Intelligence That “Thinks” Like Humans

Creating human-like AI is about more than mimicking human behavior – technology must also be able to process information, or ‘think’, like humans too if it is to be fully relied upon.

New research, published in the journal Patterns and led by the University of Glasgow’s School of Psychology and Neuroscience, uses 3D modeling to analyze the way Deep Neural Networks – part of the broader family of machine learning – process information, to visualize how their information processing matches that of humans.

It is hoped this new work will pave the way for the creation of more dependable AI technology that will process information like humans and make errors that we can understand and predict.

One of the challenges still facing AI development is how to better understand the process of machine thinking, and whether it matches how humans process information, in order to ensure accuracy. Deep Neural Networks are often presented as the current best model of human decision-making behavior, achieving or even exceeding human performance in some tasks. However, even deceptively simple visual discrimination tasks can reveal clear inconsistencies and errors from the AI models, when compared to humans.

Currently, Deep Neural Network technology is used in applications such a face recognition, and while it is very successful in these areas, scientists still do not fully understand how these networks process information, and therefore when errors may occur.

In this new study, the research team addressed this problem by modeling the visual stimulus that the Deep Neural Network was given, transforming it in multiple ways so they could demonstrate a similarity of recognition, via processing similar information between humans and the AI model.

Professor Philippe Schyns, senior author of the study and Head of the University of Glasgow’s Institute of Neuroscience and Technology, said: “When building AI models that behave “like” humans, for instance to recognize a person’s face whenever they see it as a human would do, we have to make sure that the AI model uses the same information from the face as another human would do to recognize it. If the AI doesn’t do this, we could have the illusion that the system works just like humans do, but then find it gets things wrong in some new or untested circumstances.”

The researchers used a series of modifiable 3D faces, and asked humans to rate the similarity of these randomly generated faces to four familiar identities. They then used this information to test whether the Deep Neural Networks made the same ratings for the same reasons – testing not only whether humans and AI made the same decisions, but also whether it was based on the same information. Importantly, with their approach, the researchers can visualize these results as the 3D faces that drive the behavior of humans and networks. For example, a network that correctly classified 2,000 identities was driven by a heavily caricatured face, showing it identified the faces processing very different face information than humans.

Researchers hope this work will pave the way for more dependable AI technology that behaves more like humans and makes fewer unpredictable errors.

Reference: “Grounding deep neural network predictions of human categorization behavior in understandable functional features: The case of face identity” by Christoph Daube, Tian Xu, Jiayu Zhan, Andrew Webb, Robin A.A. Ince, Oliver G.B. Garrod and Philippe G. Schyns, 10 September 2021, Patterns.
DOI: 10.1016/j.patter.2021.100348

The study was funded by Wellcome Trust and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), part of UK Research and Innovation.,50333887.html–173380804/–173380804/–173380804/–173380804/–173380804/–173380804/


Astra Rocket 3.3 launch fails

Astra’s third attempt to reach orbit failed Aug. 28 when its Rocket 3.3 vehicle struggled to get off the launch pad because of an engine shutdown and eventually failed in flight.

The small launch vehicle, designated LV0006 by Astra, ignited its five first-stage engines at about 6:35 p.m. Eastern from Pacific Spaceport Complex – Alaska on Kodiak Island. Various issues, including taking additional time to load propellant and update software configurations, delayed the launch from the opening of the window at 4 p.m. Eastern.

The rocket, instead of immediately ascending vertically, tipped and moved sideways, hovering just about the ground. It took nearly 20 seconds for the sideways motion to stop, at which point the rocket started to ascend.

The rocket continued going up until about two and a half minutes after liftoff, near the end of the first-stage burn. Onboard video broadcast on the launch webcast showed the engines shutting down and the vehicle tumbling, with a call to “terminate” heard on the launch audio.

In a media call about 90 minutes after the failure, Chris Kemp, co-founder and chief executive of Astra, said that one of the five first-stage engines failed less than a second after liftoff. “We’re still looking into why that happened,” he said. “The guidance system was able to maintain control and the rocket began flying horizontally for a few seconds until we burned off enough propellants to begin resuming with our liftoff.”

The range, he said, issued the command to terminate thrust from the engines two and a half minutes into the flight because the vehicle was outside its licensed trajectory. The vehicle reach a peak altitude of about 50 kilometers before crashing into the ocean downrange from Kodiak Island, causing no damage or injury to the public.

“We collected a tremendous amount of data from the flight, and we have Launch Vehicle 7 at the stage of production where we’ll be able to incorporate everything we learned before sending it up to Kodiak and launching again,” he said.

A launch attempt the previous day was aborted an instant after engine ignition, which Astra later said was because the engine thrust wasn’t ramping up as fast as expected. “Right now we have no reason to believe these are related,” Kemp said.

Video of the launch showed the rocket appearing to come into contact with the launch mount, at which point it tipped and moved sideways. “We’re still studying the data and looking for any fingerprints of that,” he said, but suggested any such contact would have happened after the engine shutdown.

“We’re incredibly impressed with the guidance system,” he added. “Given that we had an engine that shut down so early into the flight, the fact that the rocket was able to maintain control and continue the flight and resume the trajectory was spectacular.”

The launch was Astra’s third attempt to reach orbit in less than year, all of which failed. A September 2020 launch of its Rocket 3.1 failed when its guidance system caused the vehicle to drift from its planned trajectory, triggering an engine shutdown shortly after liftoff. A second launch in December 2020 of its Rocket 3.2 almost reached orbit, but the upper-stage engine shut down prematurely when it ran out of fuel.

Despite the second failure, Astra declared it had demonstrated “orbital launch capability” because the launch would have been successful launching from a low-inclination site, like Cape Canaveral given the assist that the Earth’s rotation provides.

Astra made several upgrades for this, the first Rocket 3.3 vehicle, including stretched propellant tanks. “Making any changes to a complex system like a rocket always involves risk,” Kemp said in an Aug. 12 earnings call. “We appreciate this, but also believe that maximizing our learning requires us to make advances and take appropriate technical risks.”

This launch was the first of two for the U.S. Space Force under a contract announced Aug. 5. This mission, designated STP-27AD1 by the Space Force, carried only a test payload to measure the launch environment of the rocket, and would have remained attached to the upper stage even if the rocket reached orbit.,50333939.html



DLR opens applications for free launch services aboard Isar Aerospace demo missions

German space agency DLR began accepting applications this week for institutional payloads to fly aboard a pair of Isar Aerospace Spectrum launches free of charge.

Munich-based launch startup Isar Aerospace beat out Rocket Factory Augsburg and HyImpulse Technologies in May to win a DLR microlauncher competition. As a stipulation to receiving the 11-million-euro ($13 million) prize, Isar Aerospace is required to launch institutional payloads aboard two demonstration missions of its Spectrum rocket slated for 2022 and 2023.

As of Aug. 31, DLR had begun accepting applications from European institutional customers interested in securing a place aboard the two Spectrum missions.

Applicants must be national governments, agencies, public institutions, universities, or public research centers from European Union or European Space Agency member states. Other requirements include a maximum payload weight of 150 kilograms and a target orbit achievable from Norway’s Andøya Spaceport.

There is no predefined limit to the number of payloads DLR could select. The only stipulation is that the combined weight of the payloads cannot exceed 150 kilograms.

All standard launch services supplied by Isar Aerospace will be free of charge for the selected payloads. However, institutions will be liable for the cost of payload adaptors or dispensers and any non-standard launch requirements.

The deadline for applications is Oct. 31. The selection of payloads will be made by DLR in consultation with ESA. Although Isar Aerospace will not play a part in the selection of the payloads to be launched aboard its demonstration missions, it will assess the technical compatibility of each applicant.

Spectrum’s road to the launchpad
The DLR-selected institutional payloads will be carried to orbit aboard Isar Aerospace Spectrum rockets, a two-stage launch vehicle powered by nine first-stage engines and designed to deliver up to 1,000 kilograms to low Earth orbit.

Isar Aerospace is currently entering a critical period in preparation for Spectrum’s debut. Over the coming months, the launch startup will be conducting “structural testing, engine testing, and fairing testing,” Isar Aerospace chief commercial officer Stella Guillen told SpaceNews.

The debut of Spectrum is currently slated for the second half of 2022. However, this is dependent on whether the launch pad being built in Norway by the Andøya Space research institute will be fully operational in time.,50333939.html



Isotropic Systems completes funding for 2022 commercial launch

Isotropic Systems said Sept. 27 it raised more than $37 million to fully fund its flat-panel antennas through to product launch in 2022.

Seraphim Space Investment Trust led the funding round, marking its first major deal since becoming the first publicly listed space technology fund in July.

Isotropic Systems said it has now secured more than $100 million from investors and customers, enabling the British antenna maker to accelerate production to meet the next-generation satellite constellations coming online next year.

The company has expanded its workforce by 40% over the last five months to gear up for incoming satellites in low, medium and geostationary orbits, it said in the Sept. 27 announcement.

The antennas are being designed to simultaneously connect to multiple satellites across multiple orbits, helping operators reduce costs with a single integrated terminal.

“The strong interest we have received from across the industry has given us the confidence to accelerate our growth plans and bring forward the commercialisation of our groundbreaking new terminals, harnessing the potential of the thousands of new satellites being launched across multiple orbits in the year ahead,” Isotropic Systems founder and CEO John Finney said in a statement.

The British government, an investor in OneWeb’s low Earth orbit constellation that is nearing commercial launch, and SES, which expects to start deploying its next-generation O3b mPower satellites toward the end of this year in medium Earth orbit, participated in its latest funding round.

Early-stage investors AEI HorizonX, Firmament Ventures and Promus Ventures — through its Luxembourg-based space investment fund Orbital Ventures — also participated in the funding round.

James Bruegger, a Seraphim managing partner, will join Isotropic Systems’ board following the investment.

Isotropic Systems was awarded an 18.5 million euro ($22.5 million) contract from the UK Space Agency earlier this year to help commercialize its terminals, which will first focus on Ka-band systems being developed operators including SES and Telesat.,50331145.html


Spire and SpaceChain announce on-orbit blockchain demonstration

Spire Global is working with SpaceChain, a company focused on space applications for blockchain technology, to demonstrate the technology in orbit.

Under the partnership announced Sept. 28, Spire will upload SpaceChain software onto a satellite in Spire’s existing constellation. Later this year, Spire plans to launch a SpaceChain payload on a new satellite.

“Space is the next frontier for businesses, and through Spire’s satellite infrastructure we are taking global collaboration to the ultimate vantage point,” Zee Zheng, SpaceChain co-founder and CEO, said in a statement. “This partnership will help us leverage satellite-based computing to remove barriers and create a more open, collaborative and global economy.”

To provide enough compute power for the blockchain demonstration, Spire will rely on Sabertooth, the firm’s parallel processing unit initially designed for machine-learning applications.

“We’re delighted to work alongside SpaceChain and demonstrate innovative ways to leverage outer space,” Theresa Condor, Spire Space Services executive vice president and general manager, said in a statement. “Space-based computation is already proving its value across countless industries and use cases, and we’re excited to help realize its potential for emerging and decentralized blockchains.”

While blockchain gained prominence as a cryptocurrency tool, organizations also are exploring its benefits for supply chain management, cybersecurity and other tasks.

Through their partnership, Spire and SpaceChain “aim to maximize data security and increase the resiliency of computing operations,” according to a Sept. 28 news release.

Blockchain distributes keys across many nodes in a network. The wide distribution is designed in part to ensure there is no single point where someone could tamper with the network or steal data.

SpaceChain is working with Addvalue Innovation and Alba Orbital to design a decentralized satellite infrastructure, under a 440,000 pound ($596,000) grant awarded in 2020 by Enterprise Singapore and Innovate UK. Working together, the companies are designing a blockchain payload that would enable people or organizations to task a satellite directly to perform a job like capturing imagery of a specific location.,50331145.html


Terran Orbital acquires new satellite development facility

Terran Orbital, the parent company of Tyvak and PredaSAR, has leased four stories of a building in Irvine, California, to house satellite design, engineering and development.

Terran Orbital will continue to manufacture satellites at a separate Irvine facility, which the company is expanding to support its “robust pipeline,” according to a Sept. 22 news release.

Terran Orbital is growing rapidly, both in terms of its workforce and facilities, due to strong demand from government and commercial customers, Marc Bell, Terran Orbital co-founder and CEO, told SpaceNews.

Terran Orbital’s new Irvine facility covers nearly 8,262 square meters.

“The new space will significantly increase our operational efficiency and permit us to continue to expand our workforce at a rapidly accelerating pace, while also allowing us to expand our manufacturing capacity at our current location,” Bell said in a statement.

One of Tyvak’s recent orders was from Lockheed Martin, a Terran Orbital investor. Lockheed is buying a pair of 12-unit cubesats for LINUSS, short for Lockheed Martin In-space Upgrade Satellite System, to demonstrate satellite servicing in geosynchronous orbit.

Tyvak also developed and built the spacecraft bus for the Cislunar Autonomous Positioning System Technology Operations and Navigation Experiment (CAPSTONE), a satellite destined for the same orbit as the lunar Gateway. CAPSTONE is scheduled to launch later this year on a Rocket Lab Electron rocket from New Zealand.


Immune Responses From 3 Different COVID-19 Vaccines Compared Over 8 Months

Based on the strength of clinical trial data showing the vaccines conferred robust protection against COVID-19, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration granted emergency use authorization to the mRNA-based vaccines known as BNT162b2 (BioNTech, Pfizer) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in December 2020, and to the Ad26.COV2.S (Johnson & Johnson) single-shot vaccine in February 2021. To date, nearly 200 million Americans have received a COVID-19 vaccine, and as some approach the one-year anniversary of their immunization, questions remain about the vaccines’ long-term efficacy.

In a paper published in the New England Journal of Medicine, a team of experts at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) compared immune responses induced by the three vaccines over an eight-month follow-up period. The investigators evaluated the 61 participants’ levels of various antibodies, T cells, and other immune products at two to four weeks following complete immunization – the time of peak immunity – to eight months after vaccination. Thirty-one participants received the BNT162b2 vaccine, 22 received the mRNA-1273 vaccine and eight received the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine.

“The mRNA vaccines were characterized by high peak antibody responses that declined sharply by month six and declined further by month eight,” said corresponding author Dan H. Barouch, MD, PhD, director of the Center for Virology and Vaccine Research at BIDMC, who helped develop the Ad26 platform in collaboration with Johnson & Johnson. “The single-shot Ad26 vaccine induced lower initial antibody responses, but these responses were generally stable over time with minimal to no evidence of decline.”

The team also found that mRNA-1273 elicited antibody responses which were generally higher and more durable than BNT162b2. All three vaccines demonstrated broad cross-reactivity to variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The findings have important implications for understanding how vaccine immunity may wane over time; however, the precise immune responses necessary to confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 has not yet been determined, the researchers point out.

“Even though neutralizing antibody levels decline, stable T cell responses and non-neutralizing antibody functions at 8 months may explain how the vaccines continue to provide robust protection against severe COVID-19,” said lead author Ai-ris Y. Collier, MD, a maternal-fetal medicine specialist at BIDMC. “Getting vaccinated (even during pregnancy) is still the best tool we have to end the COVID-19 pandemic.”

Reference: “Differential Kinetics of Immune Responses Elicited by Covid-19 Vaccines” by Ai-ris Y. Collier, M.D.; Jingyou Yu, Ph.D.; Katherine McMahan, M.S.; Jinyan Liu, Ph.D.; Abishek Chandrashekar, M.S.; Jenny S. Maron, B.S.; Caroline Atyeo, M.S.; David R. Martinez, Ph.D.; Jessica L. Ansel, N.P.; Ricardo Aguayo, B.S.; Marjorie Rowe, B.S.; Catherine Jacob-Dolan, B.S.; Daniel Sellers, B.S.; Julia Barrett, B.S.; Kunza Ahmad, M.S.; Tochi Anioke, B.S.; Haley VanWyk, B.S.; Sarah Gardner, B.S.; Olivia Powers, B.S.; Esther A. Bondzie, B.A.; Huahua Wan, M.S.; Ralph S. Baric, Ph.D.; Galit Alter, Ph.D.; Michele R. Hacker, Sc.D. and Dan H. Barouch, M.D., Ph.D., 15 October 2021, New England Journal of Medicine.
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2115596

Co-authors included Jingyou Yu, PhD, Katherine McMahan, MS, Jinyan Liu, PhD, Abishek Chandrashekar, MS, Jessica L. Ansel, NP, Marjorie Rowe, BS, Ricardo Aguayo, BS, Catherine Jacob-Dolan, BS, Daniel Sellers, BS, Julia Barrett, BS,Kunza Ahmad, MS, Tochi Anioke, BS, Haley VanWyk, BS, Sarah Gardner, BS, Olivia Powers, BS, Esther A. Bondzie, BA, Huahua Wan, MS, and Michele R. Hacker, ScD of BIDMC; Jenny S. Maron, BS, Caroline Atyeo, MS and Galit Alter, PhD, of Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard; and David R. Martinez, PhD, and Ralph S. Baric, PhD of University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

The authors acknowledge Janssen Vaccines & Prevention, the National Institutes of Health (grant CA26047), the Massachusetts Consortium for Pathogen Readiness, the Ragon Institute and the Musk Foundation. The authors also acknowledge the Reproductive Scientist Development Program for the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development and Burroughs Wellcome Fund (grant HD000849), the Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (grant TR0025410), and a Hannah H. Gray Fellowship from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and a Burroughs Wellcome Fund Postdoctoral Enrichment Award.

Barouch is a co-inventor on provisional vaccine patents (63/121, 482; 63/133, 969; 63/135, 182). Please see the paper for a complete list of disclosures.,50305065.html