Categories
News

Novel Metal Discovered Where Electrons Flow in the Same Way Water Flows in a Pipe

A team of researchers from Boston College has created a new metallic specimen where the motion of electrons flows in the same way water flows in a pipe — fundamentally changing from particle-like to fluid-like dynamics, the team reports in Nature Communications.

Working with colleagues from the University of Texas at Dallas and Florida State University, Boston College Assistant Professor of Physics Fazel Tafti found in the metal superconductor, a synthesis of Niobium and Germanium (NbGe2), that a strong interaction between electrons and phonons alters the transport of electrons from the diffusive, or particle-like, to hydrodynamic, or fluid-like, regime.

The findings mark the first discovery of an electron-phonon liquid inside NbGe2, Tafti said.

“We wanted to test a recent prediction of the ‘electron-phonon fluid’,” Tafti said, noting that phonons are the vibrations of a crystal structure. “Typically, electrons are scattered by phonons which leads to the usual diffusive motion of electrons in metals. A new theory shows that when electrons strongly interact with phonons, they will form a united electron-phonon liquid. This novel liquid will flow inside the metal exactly in the same way as water flows in a pipe.”

By confirming the predictions of theoreticians, the experimental physicist Tafti — working with his Boston College colleague Professor of Physics Kenneth Burch, Luis Balicas of FSU, and Julia Chan of UT-Dallas — says the discovery will spur further exploration of the material and its potential applications.

Tafti noted that our daily lives depend on the flow of water in pipes and electrons in wires. As similar as they may sound, the two phenomena are fundamentally different. Water molecules flow as a fluid continuum, not as individual molecules, obeying the laws of hydrodynamics. Electrons, however, flow as individual particles and diffuse inside metals as they get scattered by lattice vibrations.

The team’s investigation, with significant contributions from graduate student researcher Hung-Yu Yang, who earned his doctorate from BC in 2021, focused on the conduction of electricity in the new metal, NbGe2, Tafti said.

They applied three experimental methods: electrical resistivity measurements showed a higher-than-expected mass for electrons; Raman scattering showed a change of behavior in the vibration of the NbGe2 crystal due to the special flow of electrons; and X-ray diffraction revealed the crystal structure of the material.

By using a specific technique known as the “quantum oscillations” to evaluate the mass of electrons in the material, the researchers found that the mass of electrons in all trajectories was three times larger than the expected value, said Tafti, whose work is supported by the National Science Foundation.

“This was truly surprising because we did not expect such ‘heavy electrons’ in a seemingly simple metal,” Tafti said. “Eventually, we understood that the strong electron-phonon interaction was responsible for the heavy electron behavior. Because electrons interact with lattice vibrations, or phonons, strongly, they are ‘dragged’ by the lattice and it appears as if they have gained mass and become heavy.”

Tafti said the next step is to find other materials in this hydrodynamic regime by leveraging the electron-phonon interactions. His team will also focus on controlling the hydrodynamic fluid of electrons in such materials and engineering new electronic devices.

Reference: “Evidence of a coupled electron-phonon liquid in NbGe2” by Hung-Yu Yang, Xiaohan Yao, Vincent Plisson, Shirin Mozaffari, Jan P. Scheifers, Aikaterini Flessa Savvidou, Eun Sang Choi, Gregory T. McCandless, Mathieu F. Padlewski, Carsten Putzke, Philip J. W. Moll, Julia Y. Chan, Luis Balicas, Kenneth S. Burch and Fazel Tafti, 6 September 2021, Nature Communications.
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-25547-x

http://www.dmcityview.com/event/wwe-extreme-rules-2021%e2%80%b3-live-stream-reddit-free-on-26-sept/

https://www.deviantart.com/khelap/journal/NASCAR-South-Point-400-Live-Stream-reddit-2021-893069468

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18566

https://kukooo.com/household/furniture/chair-table/asa-fdsg-vdsf-fsdfsdgbfbfgbnfgn_i73895

https://kukooo.com/real-estate/housing-swap/aewr-ikuoursefr-nkiuoyfyretgrdhfgyjuhk_i73896

https://kukooo.com/jobs/web-developer-designer/adasfgrhb-zgfdhfgjmh_i73898 

https://pastebin.com/HbQvhJTL

https://vocus.cc/article/6150e64dfd89780001a2c774

https://ctxt.io/2/AABgTBGaFg

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_adsaf,49784793.html

https://pastebin.com/SkkWjMcn

https://ctxt.io/2/AABg1DoWFg

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_adasf,49784799.html

https://tautaruna.nra.lv/forums/tema/46127-tresci-na-forum-bankier/

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/dd241fd8be50df432122d8c9b66c6fce

https://www.deviantart.com/khelap/journal/LIVE-Reddit-NFL-Streams-watching-football-893064186

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/nascar-south-point-400-live-stream-2021-sunday-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/watchfree-wwe-extreme-rules-2021-livestream-reddit-26-sept

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/extreme-rules-2021-live-stream-how-watch-wwe-full-fight-online-free-26-september-sunday

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/tonys-live-stream-free-watch-74th-tony-awards-2021-online-full-show260921

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/26-9tony-awards-2021-livestream-tonys-red-carpet-full-show-online-tonights

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/nascar-south-point-400-live-stream-watch-online-tv-channel-start-time

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/watchfree-south-point-400-livestream-reddit-26-sept

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/watchfree-tony-awards-2021-livestream-reddit-26-sept

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/livestream-74th-annual-tony-awards-live-free

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/live-wwe-extreme-rules-2021-live-stream-free-1

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/free-wwe-extreme-rules-2021-live-streaming-full-match-watch-online-tv-channel

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/49ers-vs-packers-nfl-live-stream-reddit-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/san-francisco-49ers-vs-green-bay-packers-livestream-reddit-nfl-game-2021-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/raiders-vs-dolphins-nfl-live-stream-reddit-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/packers-vs-49ers-2021-live-stream-reddit-week-3-sunday-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/san-francisco-49ers-vs-green-bay-packers-livestream-reddit-nfl-game-2021-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/seattle-seahawks-vs-minnesota-vikings-live-streamsun-26-sept-watch-nfl-football-game-online

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/minnesota-vikings-vs-seattle-seahawks-livestream-reddit-nfl-game-2021-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/watch-vikings-vs-seahawks-nfl-live-stream-reddit-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/tampa-bay-buccaneers-vs-los-angeles-rams-live-streamsun-26-sept-watch-nfl-football-game

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/los-angeles-rams-vs-tampa-bay-buccaneers-livestream-reddit-nfl-game-2021-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/buccaneers-vs-rams-2021-live-stream-reddit-week-3-sunday-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/rams-vs-buccaneers-nfl-live-stream-reddit-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/green-bay-packers-vs-san-francisco-49ers-live-streamsun-26-sept-watch-nfl-football-game

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/watch-seahawks-vs-vikings-2021-live-stream-reddit-week-3-sunday-26-september-2021

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/miami-dolphins-vs-las-vegas-raiders-live-streamsun-26-sept-watch-nfl-football-game-online-tv

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/las-vegas-raiders-vs-miami-dolphins-livestream-reddit-nfl-game-2021-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/dolphins-vs-raiders-2021-live-stream-reddit-week-3-sunday-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/broncos-vs-jets-nfl-live-stream-reddit-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/denver-broncos-vs-new-york-jets-livestream-reddit-nfl-game-2021-week-3-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/new-york-jets-vs-denver-broncos-live-streamsun-26-sept-watch-nfl-football-game-online-tv-info

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/jets-vs-broncos-2021-live-stream-reddit-nfl-week-3-sunday-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/new-york-jets-vs-denver-broncos-live-streamsun-26-sept-watch-nfl-football-game-online-tv-info

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18507

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18509

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18513

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18515

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18517

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18519

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/nascar_live_stream_reddit_motorsport_and_motor_racing_streams_-_reddit

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_watch_free_new_york_jets_vs_denver_broncos_live_stream_reddit_on_26_sept

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/broncos_vs_ny_jets_live_stream_reddit_2021_on_26_september

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_watch_free_miami_dolphins_vs_las_vegas_raiders_live_stream_reddit_on_26_sept

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/livestream_dolphins_vs_raiders_live_stream_nfl_reddit

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_watch_free_seattle_seahawks_vs_minnesota_vikings_live_stream_reddit_on_26_sept

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_26_9_seahawks_vs_vikings_nfl_live_stream_reddit_for_week_3

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_watch_free_tampa_bay_buccaneers_vs_los_angeles_rams_live_stream_reddit_on_26_sept

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_watch_free_buccaneers_vs_rams_nfl_live_streams_free_on_reddit

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_watch_free_green_bay_packers_vs_san_francisco_49ers_live_stream_reddit_on_26_sept

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/packers_vs_49ers_live_stream_reddit_26_09_how_to_watch_sunday_night_football_online_free

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_watch_free_wwe_extreme_rules_2021_live_stream_reddit_on_26_sept

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_live_wwe_extreme_rules_2021_live_stream_free_watch_today_wrestling_on_online_tv

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/watch_wwe_extreme_rules_2021_free_reddit_live_streams_on_26_september

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_1080p-hd_ppv_wwe_extreme_rules_2021_live_streaming_full_match_watch_online_tv_channel

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_watch_free_tony_awards_2021_live_stream_reddit_on_26_sept

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/streams_gt_reddit-tony_awards_live_on_show_26_sep_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/here_s_tony_awards_live_stream_how_to_watch_the_2021_tonys_online

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/tonys_2021_live_stream_full_show_watch_tony_awards_online_on_26_september

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/tonys_live_stream_watch_the_tony_awards_red-carpet_show_online_free_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_nascar_free_south_point_400_live_stream_reddit_on_26_sept

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/nascar_live_stream_reddit_2021_watch_south_point_400_online_stream

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/how_to_watch_the_south_point_400_live_stream_free_full_race_on_las_vegas

Categories
News

Modern Activities Follow the Contours of Ancient Teotihuacan City

Lidar mapping study reveals vast landscape modifications that still influence construction and farming.

A lidar mapping study using a cutting-edge aerial mapping technology shows ancient residents of Teotihuacan moved astonishing quantities of soil and bedrock for construction and reshaped the landscape in a way that continues to influence the contours of modern activities in this part of Mexico. The work is published in the open-access journal, PLOS One.

The paper also shows how Teotihuacan’s engineers re-routed two rivers to align with points of astronomical significance, identified hundreds of previously unknown architectural features, and documented over 200 archaeological features that have been destroyed by mining and urbanization since the 1960s.

“We don’t live in the past, but we live with the legacies of past actions. In a monumental city like Teotihuacan, the consequences of those actions are still fresh on the landscape,” said first author Nawa Sugiyama, a professor of anthropology at UC Riverside.

Teotihuacan, about 25 miles northeast of modern Mexico City, was the largest city in the Americas and one of the largest anywhere in the ancient world. It existed from about 100 BCE-550 CE— about 1,000-2,000 years ago— and covered 8 square miles. At its height, it consisted of numerous pyramids, plazas, and well-designed residential and commercial neighborhoods housing a population of around 100,000. Some of the pyramids and other structures are visible above ground today, but most of the city’s remains lie buried beneath modern fields, buildings, and other activity areas.

To map the below-ground parts of Teotihuacan, Nawa Sugiyama and co-authors Saburo Sugiyama at Arizona State University; Tanya Catignani at George Mason University; Adrian S. Z. Chase at Claremont University; and Juan C. Fernandez-Diaz at Houston University used lidar, a mapping technology that measures the amount of time it takes light from a laser to bounce back from an object. Archaeologists often use lidar to discover buried features covered by dense forests or open fields but rarely deploy the technology where archaeological remains lie beneath urban areas.

“Lidar is often perceived as revolutionary tool to find ancient features hidden in plain sight, but we found the lidar map to be extremely messy and hard to interpret. Many of the features we identified were modern with ancient roots. But then we realized there is a far more interesting story behind this trend,” said Nawa Sugiyama.

Because the sheer scale of construction at Teotihuacan suggested massive modification of the ancient landscape, Sugiyama’s group thought that lidar could help elucidate the relationship between the layout of Teotihuacan and modern activities that overlay it. The researchers confirmed the lidar findings with surveys by foot and comparisons to previous mapping efforts.

They found that the builders of Teotihuacan leveled the ground down to the bedrock and, in some cases, quarried the bedrock itself to use as construction and fill material. In just one portion of the city, called the Plaza of the Columns Complex, the authors calculated that roughly 372,056 square meters of artificial ground accumulated over the course of roughly 300 years of construction that had been quarried elsewhere in the Teotihuacan Valley. In three of the main pyramid complexes, the authors estimate that 2,423,411 square meters of rock, dirt, and adobe had been used.

This major reshaping of the landscape affects the arrangement of modern construction and activities. The authors found that 65% of urban areas contained property or modern features that aligned orthogonally within 3 degrees of 15 degrees east of astronomical north— the same alignment as Teotihuacan. Rock fences were built along areas that lidar and excavation revealed to have underground ancient walls that made modern-day plowing difficult.

Teotihuacan engineers also rerouted the Rio San Juan and the San Lorenzo River, which cross the city. Rio San Juan follows the Teotihuacan orientation for 3 km as it traverses the city center while the San Lorenzo River has a very distinct orientation, 8 degrees south of astronomical east for 4.9 km. Previous research has interpreted them as major canals of symbolic and calendric significance.

The lidar map also showed that other sections of canals and rivers, many still actively used today, were altered at various points along its course, frequently coinciding with the Teotihuacan directionalities. A total of 16.9 km of the hydrological systems visible on the modern terrain had origins in the Early Classic Teotihuacan landscape.

On the lidar map, the group identified 298 features and 5,795 human-made terraces that had not been previously recorded. However, they also identified over 200 known features that have been destroyed by mining since 2015.

“We can’t fight modern urbanization. The lidar map provides a snapshot of these ancient features that are being abolished at an alarming rate that would otherwise go unnoticed. It’s one of many ways we can preserve our heritage landscape,” said Nawa Sugiyama.

The authors plan to use their lidar map to create a three-dimensional geospatial database that allows them to visualize stratigraphic and surface data, natural and artificial features, and to document the true extent of humans as geomorphic agents over long periods of time in the Teotihuacan Valley.

https://pastebin.com/G3wLYsJf

https://pastebin.com/dXs4wwUS

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/27144d5beb3819d99bcd470250da240d

https://tautaruna.nra.lv/forums/tema/46126-everything-is-chok-choka/

https://vocus.cc/article/6150bc0bfd89780001a24840

https://vocus.cc/article/6150bc53fd89780001a24932

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/85f283dcea6dfdc2c4ba90ea1f8b9b94

https://kukooo.com/real-estate/housing-swap/asd-asdsag-sfsg-fdsgfs-dfdg-dfdg-fg-fegthrtjrt-ertre_i73832

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_asdad-fergh,49781537.html

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_asdafs,49781557.html

https://ctxt.io/2/AABgoK_sEA

https://ctxt.io/2/AABgqPIHFg

https://www.dmcityview.com/event/broncos-vs-jets-livestream-reddit-free-for-week-3/
https://www.bikeanchorage.org/kajal/_watch_free_green_bay_packers_vs_san_francisco_49ers_live_stream_reddit

https://maccaboard.paulmccartney.com/forum/thread/52606

https://maccaboard.paulmccartney.com/forum/thread/52601

https://www.deviantart.com/khelap/journal/Watch-Seahawks-vs-Vikings-NFL-live-stream-reddit-893053063

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18339

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18340

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18341

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18302

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18303

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18304

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18306

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18307

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18308

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18309

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18310

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18311

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18312

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18313

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18314

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18315

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18316

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18317

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18318

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18319

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18320

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18321

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18322

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18323

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18324

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18325

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18326

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18327

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18328

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18329

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18330

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18331

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18332

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18333

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18334

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18335

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18336

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18337

https://www.salixfinance.co.uk/node/18338

Categories
News

Watch here Ansu Fati scores on return as Barca cruise past Levante

Goals from Memphis Depay, Luuk de Jong and the returning Ansu Fati helped Barcelona claim a much-needed 3-0 home victory over Levante in LaLiga on Sunday.

CAIRO : Egypt’s central bank has approved the granting of licences to allow merchants to accept contactless payments from their customers’ mobile phones, it said on Sunday.

 https://www.bikeanchorage.org/davidbackham/bilasports_streams_indianapolis_colts_vs_tennessee_titans_live_stream_online_nfl_week_3_buffstreams_free_reddit_crackstreams

https://sites.google.com/playoff2021nfllive.xyz/nflcoltsvstennesseefootballst/home

https://sites.google.com/playoff2021nfllive.xyz/falconsvsnewyorkgiants-tvstre/home
https://sites.google.com/playoff2021nfllive.xyz/patriotsneworleanssaints-livet/home
https://sites.google.com/playoff2021nfllive.xyz/gamewashingtonvsbuffalo-billse/home

https://sites.google.com/playoff2021nfllive.xyz/chargersvskansascitychiefsnflt/home
https://sites.google.com/playoff2021nfllive.xyz/steelersbengals-nflstreamsfree/home
https://sites.google.com/playoff2021nfllive.xyz/streambrownsvsbearsfreenfllive/home
https://sites.google.com/playoff2021nfllive.xyz/week-3-vs-cardinals-vs-jaguars/home
https://sites.google.com/playoff2021nfllive.xyz/ravens-vs-detroit-lions-nflgam/home

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/davidbackham/nfl_streams_live_game_washington_vs_buffalo_bills_live_stream_nfl_free

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/davidbackham/bilasports_streams_arizona_cardinals_vs_jacksonville_jaguars_live_stream_online_nfl_week_3_buffstreams_free_reddit_crackstreams

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/davidbackham/bilasports_streams_new_orleans_saints_vs_new_england_patriots_live_stream_online_nfl_week_3_buffstreams_free_reddit_crackstreams
https://www.bikeanchorage.org/davidbackham/week_3_ravens_vs_lions_live_how_to_watch_online_free_how_to_watch_nfl_week_3_game_streams_free_online_baltimore_ravens_vs_detroit_lions_live_stream_nfl_week_3

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/davidbackham/_live_gt_stream_official_cincinnati_bengals_vs_pittsburgh_steelers_vs_bengals_how_to_watch_listen_to_the_game
https://www.bikeanchorage.org/davidbackham/bilasports_streams_atlanta_falcons_vs_new_york_giants_live_stream_online_nfl_week_3_buffstreams_free_reddit_crackstreams
https://www.bikeanchorage.org/davidbackham/_nfl_free_streams_chicago_bears_vs_cleveland_browns_live_stream_browns_vs_bears_free_how_to_watch_nfl_football_2021_nfl_online_week_3_from_espn_4k_hd_which_comes_with

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/davidbackham/city_chiefs_football_news_bilasports_streams_san_diego_chargers_vs_kansas_city_chiefs_live_stream_online_nfl_week_3_buffstreams_free_reddit_crackstreams

It did not say how soon the new system would be in place or who would be eligible to receive the licences.

New legislation and regulatory changes in Egypt, the Arab world’s most populous country, are helping to unleash a surge in new fintech investments and change the way the country’s largely unbanked citizens do business.

(Reporting by Patrick Werr; Editing by Raissa Kasolowsky)

The victory, Barca’s first in their last four games in all competitions, sees the Catalans climb to fifth in the table with 12 points from six games, five behind league leaders Real Madrid, who have played one more.

Advertisement

Having been held to frustrating draws by lowly opposition in their last two league games, Barca were quick out of the blocks and went ahead after six minutes as Depay converted a penalty.

They doubled their advantage just before the quarter-hour as De Jong latched on to a Sergino Dest through ball before finishing past Aitor Fernandez in the visitors’ goal.

Fernandez made a couple of smart stops to keep the scoreline respectable as a dominant Barca pushed on in search a third.

It finally came in the 91st minute as Fati capped his first appearance since last November following a serious knee injury with a wonderful strike from distance.

Categories
News

Chinese Pterodactyl Wings Its Way to England

The first ever specimen of a pterodactyl, more commonly found in China and Brazil, has been found in the United Kingdom.

A fossil hunter recently discovered a peculiar shaped fragment of fossil bone while out walking his dog in Sandown Bay on the Isle of Wight.

Not sure what it was, he passed it to University of Portsmouth Palaeontology student Megan Jacobs, who thought it might be the jaw bone from a pterodactyl. Further research proved she was right.

However, this was no ordinary pterodactyl jaw. This one lacked teeth and was remarkably similar to a bizarre group of pterosaurs called ‘tapejarids’. They are better known from China and Brazil and have never previously been found in the UK.

Just last year a team from the University of Portsmouth discovered as similar specimen in North Africa (Morocco) which they named Afrotapejara.

The new specimen from the Isle of Wight has been named Wightia declivirostris.

Megan Jacobs said: “Although only a fragment of jaw, it has all the characteristic of a tapejarid jaw, including numerous tiny little holes that held minute sensory organs for detecting their food, and a downturned, finely pointed beak.

“Complete examples from Brazil and China show that they had large head crests, with the crest sometime being twice as big as the skull. The crests were probably used in sexual display and may have been brightly colored.”

The researchers determined that the Isle of Wight example seemed more closely related to the Chinese tapejarids rather than the Brazilian examples.

Co-author of the study Professor David Martill, a paleontologist from the University of Portsmouth, said: “This new species adds to the diversity of dinosaurs and other prehistoric reptiles found on the Island, which is now one of the most important places for Cretaceous dinosaurs in the world.”

The finder has kindly donated the specimen to Dinosaur Isle Museum at Sandown, where it is hoped it will go on display in the future.

The new discovery is reported in the scientific journal Cretaceous Research.

https://pastebin.com/Ru83YeuE

https://pastebin.com/z2PS5cdi

https://maccaboard.paulmccartney.com/forum/thread/52591

https://vocus.cc/article/61509343fd89780001a17a23

https://vocus.cc/article/61509391fd89780001a17c54

https://kukooo.com/household/electronics/asa-fdsf-fdg-fdg-sdddgv_i73735

https://kukooo.com/real-estate/houses-apartments-for-rent/asav-sadaf-dghbfgbbfg_i73737

https://kukooo.com/real-estate/rooms-for-rent-shared/adas-fdsg-fd-dsfgh-dsfg_i73739 

https://tautaruna.nra.lv/forums/tema/46124-2021-nfl-live-streams-reddit-reddit-nfl-stream/

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/08eacfc0d782bae1f7cb4f8d704db52f

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/7b9612bf2279881e1b730e4fb9c8d809

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_dsadf-gvfh-dfgdfhb,49777739.html

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_asdasf-dsfhb-dfghb-dfedfh,49777747.html

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/nfl-crackstreams-buffstreams-bilasports-nflredzone-live-streams-reddit
————
https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_free_stream_indianapolis_colts_vs_tennessee_titans_live_stream_watch_nfl_football_2021_full_match_online

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/colts_vs_titans_nfl_live_stream_reddit_week_3_on_26_september_2021

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_free_stream_atlanta_falcons_vs_new_york_giants_live_stream_watch_nfl_football_2021_full_match_online

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_live_tv_giants_vs_falcons_nfl_live_stream_reddit_week_3_on_26_september_2021_j7bbkpksc5g8gvuhofyija

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_free_stream_san_diego_chargers_vs_kansas_city_chiefs_live_stream_watch_nfl_football_2021_full_match_online

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/free_chiefs_vs_chargers_nfl_live_stream_reddit_week_3_on_26_september_2021

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_free_stream_cincinnati_bengals_vs_pittsburgh_steelers_live_stream_watch_nfl_football_2021_full_match_online

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/bengals_vs_pittsburgh_steelers_nfl_live_stream_reddit_week_3_on_26_september_2021

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_free_stream_chicago_bears_vs_cleveland_browns_live_stream_watch_nfl_football_2021_full_match_online

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_stream_s_browns_vs_bears_nfl_live_stream_reddit_week_3_on_26_september_2021

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_free_stream_baltimore_ravens_vs_detroit_lions_live_stream_watch_nfl_football_2021_full_match_online

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/nflstreams_ravens_vs_lions_nfl_live_stream_reddit_week_3_on_26_september_2021

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_free_stream_new_orleans_saints_vs_new_england_patriots_live_stream_watch_nfl_football_2021_full_match_online

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_game_patriots_vs_saints_nfl_live_stream_reddit_week_3_on_26_september_2021

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_free_stream_arizona_cardinals_vs_jacksonville_jaguars_live_stream_watch_nfl_football_2021_full_match_online

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/today_s_jaguars_vs_cardinal_nfl_live_stream_reddit_week_3_on_26_september_2021

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/_free_stream_washington_football_team_vs_buffalo_bills_live_stream_watch_nfl_football_2021_full_match_online

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45854/nfl_streams_reddit_nfl_2021_games_live_online_free_on_reddit_crackstreams_buffstreams_nflbite_nfl-network_and_nfl-redzone

Categories
News

Climate Change Likely To Abruptly Impact Algae in the Global Ocean

Global warming is likely to cause abrupt changes to important algal communities because of shifting biodiversity ‘break point’ boundaries in the oceans – according to research from the University of East Anglia and the Earlham Institute.

A new study, published today in the journal Nature Communications, finds that as climate change extends the warm hemisphere, these boundaries are predicted to shift pole-wards over the next 100 years.

Instead of a gradual change in microbial diversity due to warming, the researchers suggest it will happen more abruptly at what they call ‘break points’ — wherever the upper ocean temperature is around 15 degrees on an annual average, separating cold and warm waters.

The UK is one of the areas most likely to be severely affected, and more suddenly than previously thought. But the team says that the changes could be stopped if we act swiftly to halt climate change.

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/marathon-live-stream-reddit-watch-2021-bmw-berlin-marathon-full-race-online-free

https://vocus.cc/article/614fe558fd897800019d3d28

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/25edbb3a2a3fcee229b15252c2ebbbc2

https://tautaruna.nra.lv/forums/tema/46122-bmw-berlin-marathon-liveatstream-free-2021/

https://kukooo.com/jobs/cleaner-general-worker/bmw-berlin-marathon-livestream-free-2021_i73065

https://console.mytrendingstories.com/article/single/berlin-marathon-live-stream-reddit-on-sep-klebjb

https://www.deviantart.com/khelap/journal/Berlin-Marathon-2021-Live-stream-reddit-On-25-sep-892995324

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45813/_marathon_streams_bmw_berlin_marathon_2021_live_stream_reddit_4k_tv_info

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/maratv/live_2021_berlin_marathon_tv_streaming_information

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/berlintv/rbb-tv_berlin_marathon_2021_live_stream_reddit

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/free-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-tv-covarage

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-free-reddit-26-september-sunday

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/berlin-marathon-2021-alle-infos-zu-live-stream-strecke-sperrungen-und-siegern

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/get-berlin-marathon-free-live-stream-2021-around-world

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/2021-bmw-berlin-marathon-abbott-world-marathon-majors-live-stream-results-start-lists

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/redditstreams-berlin-marathon-live-stream-reddit-free

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/berlintv/how_to_watch_2021_bmw_berlin_marathon_live_26_09_2021

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/berlintv/_livestream_berlin_marathon_2021_live_stream_free

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/berlintv/watch_bmw_berlin_marathon_2021_live_stream_online_free

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/berlintv/jetzt_im_livestream_der_47_berlin-marathon_rbb24

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/berlintv/watch_bmw_berlin_marathon_2021_live_streaming_free_watch_online

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/berlintv/_watch-free_bmw_berlin-marathon_live_stream_how_to_watch_race_route_online_free

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/maratv/_online_berlin_marathon_im_live_stream_2021_f8ztygxviknivavas42ekq

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/maratv/berlin_marathon_2021_im_live_stream_on_reddit_on_sunday

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/maratv/_livestream_berlin_marathon_2021_live_stream_free_live2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/maratv/bmw_berlin_marathon_2021_live_streaming_free_26_09_21

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/maratv/_berlin_marathon_race_2021_livestream_held_on_september_26

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/maratv/b_m_w_berlin_marathon_full-race_live_stream_online_free_2021-09-26

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45813/_live-tv_berlin-marathon_2021_live_stream_reddit_free_g0c1h0dshcos9fnzjpdccq

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45813/watch_berlin_marathon_2021_live_streaming_on_sunday

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45813/berlin_marathon_2021_live_stream_reddit_on_26_sept_sunday

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45813/race_berlin_marathon_2021_livestream_tv_route_start_time

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45813/bmw_-_berlin_marathon_2021_live_streaming_full_race_online_free

https://www.ujs.org.uk/45813/b_m_w_berlin_marathon_2021_live_stream_free_reddit_on_26_sep_sunday_2021

Prof Thomas Mock, from UEA’s School of Environmental Sciences, said: “Algae are essential in maintaining a healthy ecosystem to balance ocean life. By absorbing energy from sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water, they produce organic compounds for marine life to live off.

“These organisms underpin some of the largest food webs on Earth and drive global biogeochemical cycles.

“Accountable for at least 20 percent of annual global carbon fixation, temperature changes could have a significant impact upon the algae that our marine systems, fisheries, and ocean biodiversity depend on.

“We wanted to better-understand how the climate crisis is impacting algae worldwide from the Arctic to the Antarctic.”

Algae Phaeocystis Bloom

Coloring the water, the algae Phaeocystis blooms off the side of the sampling vessel, Polarstern, in the temperate region of the North Atlantic. Credit: Katrin Schmidt

The research was led by scientists at UEA in collaboration with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI, USA) and the Earlham Institute (UK).

The major study was conducted over more than 10 years by an international team of 32 researchers, from institutions including the University of Exeter in the UK and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany.

It involved the first pole-to-pole analysis of how algae (Eukaryotic phytoplankton) and their expressed genes are geographically distributed in the oceans. Thus, the team studied how their gene activity is changing due to environmental conditions in the upper ocean from pole to pole.

As the upper ocean is already experiencing significant warming due to rising CO2 levels, the researchers estimated how the distribution of these algal communities might change based on a model from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report.

Scientists Sampling Under Ice Phytoplankton Communities

Scientists sampling under-ice phytoplankton communities utilising a ‘mummy chair.’ Under-ice communities are vital for, for example, krill and other under-ice feeding organisms. Credit: Katrin Schmidt

The algal communities’ diversity and gene activity are shaped by interactions with microscopic single-celled organisms, or prokaryotes, as part of complex microbiomes.

The researchers found that these global communities can be split into two main clusters — organisms that mainly live in cold polar and warm non-polar waters.

The geographic patterns are best explained by the differences in the water’s physical structure (for example, seasonally mixed cold versus permanently stratified warm water) of the upper ocean caused by latitudinal gradients of temperature.

The organisms were analyzed through nucleic acids extraction and DNA and mRNA sequencing of samples collected during four research cruises in the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, South Atlantic Ocean, and Southern Ocean.

Prof Mock said: “Significant international efforts have provided insights into what drives the diversity of these organisms and their global biogeography in the global ocean, however, there is still limited understanding of environmental conditions responsible for differences between local species communities on a large scale from pole to pole.

“Our results provide new insights into how changing environmental conditions correlate with biodiversity changes subject to large-scale environmental fluctuation and disturbances. This knowledge is essential for predicting the consequences of global warming and therefore may guide environmental management.

“We can expect the marine systems around the UK and other countries on this latitude to be severely affected, and more suddenly than previously thought.

“The largest ecosystem change will occur when marine microalgal communities and their associated bacteria around the UK will be replaced by their warm-water counterparts.

“This is expected to be caused by the pole-ward shifting ecosystem boundary or ‘biodiversity break point’ separating both communities. For this to take place, the annual average upper ocean temperature needs to become warmer than 15C.

“It’s not irreversible though, if we can stop global warming,” he added.

Categories
News

Computer Science: How Quickly Do Algorithms Improve?

MIT scientists show how fast algorithms are improving across a broad range of examples, demonstrating their critical importance in advancing computing.

Algorithms are sort of like a parent to a computer. They tell the computer how to make sense of information so they can, in turn, make something useful out of it.

The more efficient the algorithm, the less work the computer has to do. For all of the technological progress in computing hardware, and the much debated lifespan of Moore’s Law, computer performance is only one side of the picture.

Behind the scenes a second trend is happening: Algorithms are being improved, so in turn less computing power is needed. While algorithmic efficiency may have less of a spotlight, you’d definitely notice if your trusty search engine suddenly became one-tenth as fast, or if moving through big datasets felt like wading through sludge.

This led scientists from MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) to ask: How quickly do algorithms improve?

Existing data on this question were largely anecdotal, consisting of case studies of particular algorithms that were assumed to be representative of the broader scope. Faced with this dearth of evidence, the team set off to crunch data from 57 textbooks and more than 1,110 research papers, to trace the history of when algorithms got better. Some of the research papers directly reported how good new algorithms were, and others needed to be reconstructed by the authors using “pseudocode,” shorthand versions of the algorithm that describe the basic details.

In total, the team looked at 113 “algorithm families,” sets of algorithms solving the same problem that had been highlighted as most important by computer science textbooks. For each of the 113, the team reconstructed its history, tracking each time a new algorithm was proposed for the problem and making special note of those that were more efficient. Ranging in performance and separated by decades, starting from the 1940s to now, the team found an average of eight algorithms per family, of which a couple improved its efficiency. To share this assembled database of knowledge, the team also created Algorithm-Wiki.org.

The scientists charted how quickly these families had improved, focusing on the most-analyzed feature of the algorithms — how fast they could guarantee to solve the problem (in computer speak: “worst-case time complexity”). What emerged was enormous variability, but also important insights on how transformative algorithmic improvement has been for computer science.

For large computing problems, 43 percent of algorithm families had year-on-year improvements that were equal to or larger than the much-touted gains from Moore’s Law. In 14 percent of problems, the improvement to performance from algorithms vastly outpaced those that have come from improved hardware. The gains from algorithm improvement were particularly large for big-data problems, so the importance of those advancements has grown in recent decades.

The single biggest change that the authors observed came when an algorithm family transitioned from exponential to polynomial complexity. The amount of effort it takes to solve an exponential problem is like a person trying to guess a combination on a lock. If you only have a single 10-digit dial, the task is easy. With four dials like a bicycle lock, it’s hard enough that no one steals your bike, but still conceivable that you could try every combination. With 50, it’s almost impossible — it would take too many steps. Problems that have exponential complexity are like that for computers: As they get bigger they quickly outpace the ability of the computer to handle them. Finding a polynomial algorithm often solves that, making it possible to tackle problems in a way that no amount of hardware improvement can.

As rumblings of Moore’s Law coming to an end rapidly permeate global conversations, the researchers say that computing users will increasingly need to turn to areas like algorithms for performance improvements. The team says the findings confirm that historically, the gains from algorithms have been enormous, so the potential is there. But if gains come from algorithms instead of hardware, they’ll look different. Hardware improvement from Moore’s Law happens smoothly over time, and for algorithms the gains come in steps that are usually large but infrequent.

“This is the first paper to show how fast algorithms are improving across a broad range of examples,” says Neil Thompson, an MIT research scientist at CSAIL and the Sloan School of Management and senior author on the new paper. “Through our analysis, we were able to say how many more tasks could be done using the same amount of computing power after an algorithm improved. As problems increase to billions or trillions of data points, algorithmic improvement becomes substantially more important than hardware improvement. In an era where the environmental footprint of computing is increasingly worrisome, this is a way to improve businesses and other organizations without the downside.”

Reference: “How Fast Do Algorithms Improve?” by Yash Sherry and Neil C. Thompson, 20 September 2021, Proceedings of the IEEE.
DOI: 10.1109/JPROC.2021.3107219

Thompson wrote the paper alongside MIT visiting student Yash Sherry. The paper is published in the Proceedings of the IEEE. The work was funded by the Tides foundation and the MIT Initiative on the Digital Economy.

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/ortega-ufc-266-livestream-reddit-fullfight-26-september

https://tautaruna.nra.lv/forums/tema/46120-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-on-sunday-26-09-2021/

https://vocus.cc/article/614fb8fdfd897800019c4a3f

https://console.mytrendingstories.com/article/single/berlin-marathon-live-stream-on-sunday-ldgpza

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/bd2100ea36e0a069432ce55098ec2a6d

https://ideone.com/urc9qW

http://paste.jp/85ceee28/

https://ctxt.io/2/AABg5GPOFA

https://www.pastery.net/ujgjvu/

https://paste.ee/p/v3lgs

https://ctxt.io/2/AABgOOc8Eg

https://paiza.io/projects/Eb4WrZVqgdFGzrGlZvf9nA?language=php

https://www.88posts.com/post/716985/ortega-ufc-266-live-stream-reddit-full-fight-26-september-the-beer-connoisseur

https://pastelink.net/3h73u

http://cpp.sh/3j64t

https://notes.io/J7Ps

https://pastebin.freeswitch.org/view/a9a69243

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_adsaf,49769213.html

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/watch-ufc-266-free-live-streams-reddit-crackstreams-0

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/vod-ufc-266-fight-live-stream-how-watch-volkanovski-vs-ortega-online

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/ufc-266-live-stream-reddit-volkanovski-vs-ortega-ppv-free-online-and-tv-fight-card-start-time

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/todays-ufc-266-live-streamingreddit-fight-updates-results-highlights

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/volkanovski-vs-ortega-ufc-266-live-stream-reddit-26-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/berlin-marathon-live-stream-26-september-sunday-2021

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/watch-bmw-berlin-marathon-2021-live-online-stream-free

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/das-erste-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-reddit-sunday-25-september

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream269-full-race-tv-route-start-time

https://www.dmcityview.com/event/bmw-live-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-free/

http://oldgaffers.fr/advert/bmw-live-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-free

https://yesh.travel/advert/bmw-live-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-free-3/

https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/bmw-live-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-free/

https://www.deviantart.com/khelap/journal/Berlin-Marathon-2021-Live-stream-on-sunday-892979262

https://www.deviantart.com/khelap/journal/Berlin-Marathon-2021-Live-stream-on-sunday-892979262

https://maccaboard.paulmccartney.com/users/berlin-marathon-2021-livestream-free

https://haitiliberte.com/advert/2021-berlin-marathon-livestream-sept-26-on-flotrack/

https://haitiliberte.com/advert/2021-bmw-berlin-marathon-livestream-full-race-on-sunday-september-26/

https://haitiliberte.com/advert/watch-2021-berlin-marathon-livetv-streaming-information/

https://haitiliberte.com/advert/how-to-watch-2021-bmw-berlin-marathon-live/

https://haitiliberte.com/advert/26-9berlin-marathon-2021-livestream-tv-race-route-start-time/
———
https://sparkjab.com/advert/bmw-berlin-marathon-livestream-full-race-on-26-september-2021/

https://sparkjab.com/advert/26-92021-bmw-berlin-marathon-livestream-results-start-lists-schedule/

https://sparkjab.com/advert/how-to-2021-bmw-berlin-marathon-live-streaming-watch-race-online-free/

https://sparkjab.com/advert/liverace-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-livestream-on-sunday-26-september/

https://sparkjab.com/advert/berlin-marathon-full-race-live-stream-reddit-on-germany-sep-26-2021/
————————
http://oldgaffers.fr/advert/how-to-watch-live-streams-the-2021-berlin-marathon-full-race

http://oldgaffers.fr/advert/%e3%80%90livestream%e3%80%91-2021-berlin-marathon-live2021

http://oldgaffers.fr/advert/flotrack-berlin-marathon-2021-live-2021-livestream

http://oldgaffers.fr/advert/bmw-berlin-marathon-2021-livestream

http://oldgaffers.fr/advert/bmw-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-free-on-reddit
————–
https://www.dmcityview.com/event/how-to-watch-2021-bmw-berlin-marathon-live-stream-tv-covarage/

https://www.dmcityview.com/event/bmw-berlin-marathon-2021-ger-live-stream-reddit-free/

https://www.dmcityview.com/event/%e3%80%90livestream%e3%80%91-bmw-berlin-marathon-2021-live-sep-26-2021/

https://www.dmcityview.com/event/watch-bmw-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-free-on-reddit/

https://www.dmcityview.com/event/berlin-marathon-2021-free-live-stream-full-race-tv-route-start-time/
————
https://yesh.travel/advert/watch-bmw-berlin-marathon-2021-live-online-stream-free/

https://yesh.travel/advert/live-tv-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-full-race-online-on-sep-26/

https://yesh.travel/advert/stream%e1%b4%b4%e1%b4%b0-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-tv-route-start-time/

https://yesh.travel/advert/berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-free-on-reddit-26-september-sundays/
———
https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/live-tv-berlin-marathon-2021-live-streamreddit-free/

https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/16-9-berlin-marathon-2021-livestream-free-reddit/

https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/full-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-free-on-26-september-sunday/

https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/how-to-watch-berlin-marathon-2021-live-stream-online-tv-covarage/
————-

Categories
News

Science Made Simple: What is Nanoscience?

Nanoscience is the study of matter at the nanoscale—dimensions between approximately 1 and 100 nanometers or 1,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. At these incredibly small scales, materials have unique phenomena that enable new applications. In 1959, the famed physicist Richard Feynman said in a prophetic lecture that there was “plenty of room at the bottom.” Feynman meant that exploring and manipulating materials almost atom by atom would create huge opportunities for new science and important new technologies. Today that “room at the bottom” is called nanoscience. It is an important part of research in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology.

You can literally see the impact of this research on television. Some video screens today use a U.S.-developed nanotechnology called quantum dots. The technology creates televisions with very high-resolution and precise, vivid colors.

Nanoscience Facts

  • The word nano is from the Greek word ‘nanos,’ meaning dwarf. It is a prefix used to describe one billionth of something. A nanometer is one billionth of a meter.
  • The Department of Energy Office of Science has a key role in the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), a U.S. government research and development effort that envisions a future where nanotechnology leads to a revolution in technology and industry.

DOE Office of Science: Contributions to Nanoscience

Nanoscience is fundamental to progress in almost every area of technology. To meet this need, DOE Office of Science’s Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) established five Nanoscale Science Research Centers. These centers conduct interdisciplinary collaborative research at the nanoscale. They provide access to leading-edge synthesis, characterization, computational tools, and scientific expertise. Working with leading scientists, the centers create materials and structures with atomic-scale precision to characterize, understand, and predict their properties.

The centers are located near existing X-ray and neutron probes as well as advanced computing facilities so that researchers can use these tools in tandem. BES also supports a broad range of pioneering research in nanoscale science and engineering. This research supports the Department of Energy’s mission to advance the energy, economic, and national security of the United States. Building on this foundation of discovery research, scientists supported by both the government and industry are pursuing applied nanotechnology research.

https://tautaruna.nra.lv/forums/tema/46115-aj-joshua-vs-usyk-fight-liveatstream-reddit-25-09-2021/

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/ajstreams-joshua-vs-usyk-live-stream-reddit-free

https://vocus.cc/article/614f62e2fd897800019addce

https://vocus.cc/article/614f6397fd897800019ae170

https://vocus.cc/article/614f63b4fd897800019ae1fa

https://vocus.cc/article/614f63cdfd897800019ae27d

https://vocus.cc/article/614f63e8fd897800019ae318

https://pastebin.com/14g5YBFF

https://pastebin.com/D1YfpT4E

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/7016ecc656a6df62feb465a585bceab8

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/b3416ae7262bc177d8af80436259fab8

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/2b24240ea3e1cb8979d0e55ec4235ecb

https://www.deviantart.com/khelap/journal/HBO-Joshua-vs-Usyk-live-stream-reddit-full-fight-892950856

https://www.deviantart.com/khelap/journal/AJ-Joshua-vs-Usyk-live-stream-reddit-free-25-9-892951754

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/boxing_live_usyk_vs_joshua_live_stream_reddit_free

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/liveboxing-usyk-vs-joshua-free-live-streamreddit

https://www.unecertaineideededemain.fr/ktv/joshua_vs_usyk_live_streaming_free_on_reddit_crackstreams

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/nettv/_joshua_fight_joshua_vs_usyk_live_stream_free_on_reddit_crackstreams

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/watch_joshua_fight_vs_usyk_live_stream_free_on_reddit_crackstreams

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/watch_anthony_joshua_vs_usyk_free_live_25_9_boxing_streams_reddit

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/_streaming_oleksandr_usyk_vs_anthony_joshua_live_reddit_streaming_online_free

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/_crackstreams_joshua_vs_usyk_fight_live_streams_free_reddit

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/boxing_streams_-joshua_vs_usyk_streams_boxing_streams_free_boxing_live

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/boxing_streams_reddit_joshua_vs_usyk_live_stream_free

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/joshua_vs_usyk_live_reddit_boxing_streams

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/_25_9_joshua_vs_usyk_live_stream_without_reddit_streams_buffstreams

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/_crackstreams_joshua_vs_usyk_live_streaming_free_reddit_on_25_september

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/watch_reddit_hd_boxing_streams_live_stream_reddit_boxing_live_streams

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/free_live_boxing_joshua_vs_usyk_stream_online_on_remz_tv

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/boxingshare_full_fights_watch_joshua_vs_usyk_live_stream

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/full_joshua_vs_usyk_free_live_reddit_boxing_streams_25-09-2021

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/boxing_live_stream_reddit_joshua_vs_usyk_full_fight_live_stream_free_on_25_sept_2021

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/watch_joshua_vs_usyk_free_live_streams_on_reddit

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/_boxing_streams_joshua_vs_usyk_full_fight_live_stream_reddit_free

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/reddit_boxing_streams_joshua_vs_usyk_crackstreams_live_on_25_09_21

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/crackstreams_joshua_vs_usyk_live_streams_reddit_free

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/watch_buffstreams_joshua_vs_usyk_live_streaming_reddit_on_espn_dzn

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/_live_tv_joshua_vs_usyk_full_fight_live_buffstreams_sportsurge_crackstreams_streameast

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/xyzstreams_joshua_vs_usyk_live_stream_livestream_reddit_free_crackstreams

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/fite_tv_joshua_vs_usyk_batmanstream_live_boxing_stream_reddit

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/live_tv_global_citizen_live_concert_2021_with_free_live_streams_around_the_world

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/jennifer_lopez_doja_cat_lizzo_bts_and_more_will_perform_at_global_citizen_live_stream_concerts_2021

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/bts_global_citizen_livestream_concerts_festival_on_2021_sat_25_september

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/how_to_watch_bts_global_citizen_performance_online_free

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/check_s_global_citizen_festival_2021_live_stream_how_to_watch_elton_john_coldplay_bts_online

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/aj/2021_global_citizen_full_concert_live_concert_with_free_livestreams

Categories
News

Maya Rulers Transformed Cities, Put Their Personal Stamp on Monumental Complexes

Early Maya cities featured monumental complexes, which centered on a shared form of religion but these complexes transformed radically once kingship emerged in 400 B.C. To solidify their power, rulers throughout the Maya lowlands would change these complexes, installing their mark on the landscape and reshaping how people remember it, according to a Dartmouth study published in Ancient Mesoamerica.

“Just as political leaders today often seek to brand themselves, so too did early Maya rulers,” says Ryan H. Collins, a postdoctoral fellow in anthropology at the Neukom Institute for Computational Science at Dartmouth. “Maya rulers seemed to have real angst about the past world and think that it could interfere with their authority, so they would try to tweak it, or even erase it altogether. These rulers saw themselves as the embodiment of the Maya sun god and wanted to put their personal stamp on the city, so monuments and the ways people experienced the city were modified to reflect a ruler’s desires over his or her lifetime.”

Architectural Details and Artifacts From Yaxuná

(a) Circular building present on floor eight, just west of Str. 5E-6; (b) fragment of polished magnetite found alongside other artifacts cached in a pair of intentional cuts on floor seven; (c) circular incised line present on floor six; (d) complete ceramic redware vessel cached in floor four associated with two greenstone beads. Credit: Ryan H. Collins

Collins examined data from the Maya site, Yaxuná, located in central Yucatán, Mexico, and other pyramid plaza complexes or temples known as E groups in the Maya lowlands, including San Bartolo, Tikal, Ceibal in Guatemala, and Cahal Pech in Belize, which reflected observed astronomical alignments with the equinoxes and solstices.

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_ncaaf_college_football_2021_live_stream_reddit_buffstream

https://vocus.cc/article/614f2e11fd8978000199de1a

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/52c9a95928a3f4e5a99a33cc6f85415e

https://tautaruna.nra.lv/forums/tema/46112-faisa-gechi-amiat/

https://vocus.cc/article/614f2ceafd8978000199d7a4

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/e471645dac39de39b073aaa84253bcac

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/week-4-college-football-2021-live-stream-reddit-buffstream
https://yesh.travel/advert/college-football-game-live-stream-free-reddit25-09-2021/

https://beerconnoisseur.com/events/college-football-live-stream-reddit-free-reddit-cfb-streams-buffstream-ncaaf

https://www.deviantart.com/khelap/journal/College-Football-game-2021-Live-stream-reddit-892932953

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/a2z/college_football_2021_live_stream_reddit_crackstreams_buffstreams_sportsurge_cfbstreams_ncaaf_streams_cfb_streams_reddit_cfb_streams_-_bilasport

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/a2z/college_football_game_live_stream_reddit_for_free_watch_buff_streams_bilasports_crack_streams_tv_online

https://jabbedu.com/groups/ncaaf-college-football-live-stream-reddit-buffstream-bilasport-crackstreams/

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/how_to_watch_anthony_joshua_vs_oleksandr_usyk_fight_live_stream_on_tv

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_boxing_anthony_joshua_vs_oleksandr_usyk_streaming_live

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/watch_joshua_vs_usyk_live_stream_reddit_free_25_9_how_to_watch

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_streaming-live_-_joshua_vs_usyk_live_free_25_september_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_live-tv_joshua_vs_usyk_boxing_fight_free_streams_reddit_broadcast

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_25_9_anthony_joshua_vs_oleksandr_usyk_crackstream_live_reddit_stream_and_buffstream

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_25_9_joshua_vs_usyk_boxing_live_streams_on_reddit

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/joshua_vs_usyk_watch_fight_live_online_25_9_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/anthony_joshua_vs_oleksandr_usyk_fight_live_stream_on_saturday_25_september_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/lawrence_okolie_vs_dilan_prasovic_live2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_25_9_lawrence_okolie_vs_dilan_prasovic_livestream_fight_on_reddit

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/callum_smith_vs_lenin_castillo_live_stream_boxing_full_fight

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/is_campbell_hatton_vs_izan_dura_live_stream_fight_on_today_s

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/boxingstreams_campbell_hatton_vs_izan_dura_live_online_free

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_streams_birmingham_pride_2021_live_updates_-_latest_news

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/birmingham_pride_2021_live_stream_parade_tickets_sat_sep_25_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_parade_birmingham_gay_pride_2021_livestream_dates_parade_route

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_concerts_bts_at_global_citizen_live_2021_watch_k-pop_group_s_performance_online

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/how_to_watch_bts_global_citizen_performance_full_online_free_at_25_september_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_bts_global_citizen_festival_2021_live_stream_show_how_to_watch_elton_john_coldplay_concerts_online

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/tickets_global_citizen_concerts_live_at_livestream_on_25_09_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_show_global_citizen_livestream_25_9_the_world_s_biggest_concert

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/k-pop_bts_to_rock_the_world_with_global_citizen_live_stream_2021_performance

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/k-pop_on_bts_global_citizen_festival_2021_live_stream_concerts_date_start_time_tickets

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_livestream_global_citizen_live_2021_concert_live_stream_and_full_line-up_for_the_festival

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/the_gibraltar_darts_trophy_live_stream_free_on_september_24-26_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_2021_gibraltar_darts_trophy


https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/college_football_live_stream_reddit_watch_georgia_vs_vanderbilt

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_25_9_georgia_vs_vanderbilt_live_streams_reddit_week_4

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/live_penn_state_vs_villanova_free_live_stream_9_25_21_how_to_watch_college_football

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/big-ten_villanova_vs_penn_state_football_live_stream_reddit_online

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_25_9_notre_dame_vs_wisconsin_free_live_stream_time_tv_info_how_to_watch

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/_notre_dame_vs_wisconsin_livestream_reddit_college_football_game_on_25_september_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/smu_vs_tcu_live_stream_on_25_sept_tv_channel_and_start_time

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/smu_mustangs_vs_tcu_horned_frogs_live_stream_reddit_free-_september_25_2021

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/watch_college_football_game_2021_live_stream_reddit_online_week_4

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/ajtv/cfb_2021_live_stream_reddit_crackstreams_buffstreams_sportsurge_cfbstreams_ncaaf_streams_cfb_streams_reddit_cfb_streams_-_bilasport

https://pastebin.com/qUpJLYkK

https://ideone.com/pYwgk7

https://paiza.io/projects/y1Y59ebvTnAvnppa4tZcew?language=php

https://pastelink.net/3h30w

http://cpp.sh/9e7bz

https://notes.io/J5Qy

https://www.pastery.net/fugyhe/

http://paste.jp/bbfe6e16/

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_asdsaf-sasdbv-sddsgv,49762423.html

https://www.88posts.com/post/716802/college-football-live-stream-reddit-free-reddit-cfb-streams-buffstream-ncaaf-the-beer-connoisseur

http://zacriley.ning.com/photo/albums/college-football-live-stream-free-reddit

https://www.onfeetnation.com/photo/albums/college-football-live-stream-free-reddit

https://caribbeanfever.com/photo/albums/college-football-live-stream-free-reddit

In the E group, each monumental complex was built along an east-west axis and was characterized by a pyramid to the west and a long-raised platform to the east. Prior research has found that the astronomical alignments of Maya complexes were likely a reference to the sun god and maize (corn) god and the annual changes of the agricultural season.

According to archaeological data from Yaxuná and the other sites, Collins found that by 400 B.C., many Maya complexes in the E Group were either built on top of existing temples, dismantled, or abandoned altogether. In many cases, new architecture would be constructed right on top of everything that was there before, where there could five, six, or even seven pyramids preserved under the latest phase of construction.

Map of Maya Lowlands in Eastern Mesoamerica

Map of Maya lowlands in eastern Mesoamerica. Credit: Ryan H. Collins

“Over time, these temples became more about the rulers and less about the ritual and religion that once brought the communities together in the first place,” says Collins. At Yaxuná, in the original city center alone, there were 11 phases of construction between 900 B.C. and 100 B.C.

While new monuments within the E Group were created over old ones, some aspects were maintained through time. For example, the original eastern structure (Str. 5E-6) at Yaxuná contained a circular stone foundation on level eight, which was preserved and emphasized by later generations through a circular incised line on the floor of level six. Precious items were also found cached on levels seven and four, including a polished magnetite fragment and a ceramic vessel with greenware beads that were likely obtained through long-distance trade. “The Maya would go back and mark spaces of social significance generations later, not centuries later, illustrating how people were really emphasizing memory and continuity with things that they thought were important,” says Collins.

Other areas of the Yaxuná site and other E Group sites however, contained evidence of termination rituals. These rituals were used to destroy the energy or soul associated with a building, especially if it was sacred, such as by spreading the ash of burned incense over an area. In the eastern structure at Yaxuná, ash was found near a grinding stone, providing evidence that a former space for rituals was used to prepare food in later years.

“In archaeology, there has been the assumption that Maya kingship represented a continuity with the past but as Maya rulers altered peoples’ experience of where they lived, these rulers were actually breaking away from Mesoamerican building traditions and redefining the Maya city,” says Collins. “The first millennium of Maya culture for the E Group marks a period for not only new monuments but for the development of massive civic architecture, as large-scale roadways were built and districts began to emerge. These changes also may have driven Maya civilization’s shift from an egalitarian society to a more hierarchical structure.”

 

Categories
News

Potential Remnants of Original Dinosaur DNA Discovered in Exquisitely Preserved Dinosaur Cells

Organic molecule remnants found in nuclei of 125-million-year-old dinosaur cells.

A team of scientists from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and from the Shandong Tianyu Museum of Nature (STM) has isolated exquisitely preserved cartilage cells in a 125-million-year-old dinosaur from Northeast China that contain nuclei with remnants of organic molecules and chromatin. The study was published in Communications Biology on September 24, 2021.

The dinosaur, called Caudipteryx, was a small peacock-sized omnivore with long tail feathers. It roamed the shores of the shallow lakes of the Jehol Biota in Liaoning province during the Early Cretaceous.

“Geological data has accumulated over the years and shown that fossil preservation in the Jehol Biota was exceptional due to fine volcanic ashes that entombed the carcasses and preserved them down to the cellular level,” said LI Zhiheng, Associate Professor at IVPP and a co-author of this study.

The scientists extracted a piece of distal articular cartilage from the right femur of this specimen, decalcified it, and used different microscopy and chemical methods to analyze it. They realized that all the cells had been mineralized by silicification after the death of the animal. This silicification is most likely what allowed the excellent preservation of these cells.

They also discovered two main types of cells: cells that were healthy at the time of fossilization, and not-so-healthy cells that were porous and fossilized while in the process of dying. “It is possible that these cells were already dying even before the animal died,” said Alida Bailleul, Associate Professor at IVPP and the corresponding author of this study.

Cell death is a process that occurs naturally throughout the lives of all animals. But being able to place a fossilized cell into a specific spot within the cell cycle is quite new in paleontology. This is one of the objectives of the IVPP scientists: to improve cellular imagery in fossils.

Furthermore, the team isolated some cells and stained them with a chemical used in biological laboratories worldwide. This purple chemical, called hematoxylin, is known to bind to the nuclei of cells. After staining the dinosaur material, one dinosaur cell showed a purple nucleus with some darker purple threads. This means the 125-million-year-old dinosaur cell has a nucleus so well-preserved that it retains some original biomolecules and threads of chromatin.

Chromatin within the cells of all living organisms on Earth is made of tightly packed DNA molecules. The results of this study thus provide preliminary data suggesting that remnants of original dinosaur DNA may still be preserved. But to precisely test this, the team needs to do a lot more work and use chemical methods that are much more refined than the staining they used here.

“Let’s be honest, we are obviously interested in fossilized cell nuclei because this is where most of the DNA should be if DNA was preserved,” said Alida Bailleul. Last year she published another study reporting exceptional nuclear and biomolecule preservation in the cartilage cells of a dinosaur from Montana.” So, we have good preliminary data, very exciting data, but we are just starting to understand cellular biochemistry in very old fossils. At this point, we need to work more.”

The team insists they need to do many more analyses and even develop new methods to understand the processes that may allow biomolecule preservation in dinosaur cells, because no one has ever successfully sequenced any dinosaur DNA. In the ancient DNA community, sequencing methods are used to confirm if ancient DNA is preserved in fossils. So far, these methods have only worked for young fossils (not much older than about one million years), but they have never worked for dinosaur material. Dinosaurs are considered way too old to retain any DNA. However, the chemical data collected by the scientists from IVPP and STM suggest otherwise.

Even though more data must be collected, this study definitely shows that 125-million-year old fossil dinosaur cells cannot be considered 100% rock. They are not completely “stonified.” Instead, they still contain remnants of organic molecules. Now, it is vital to figure out precisely what these molecules are, whether they retain any biological information and remnants of DNA.

Reference: “Nuclear preservation in the cartilage of the Jehol dinosaur Caudipteryx” by Xiaoting Zheng, Alida M. Bailleul, Zhiheng Li, Xiaoli Wang and Zhonghe Zhou, 24 September 2021, Communications Biology.
DOI: 10.1038/s42003-021-02627-8

https://jabbedu.com/groups/watch-live-joshua-vs-usyk-boxing-fight-reddit-streaming-online-free/

https://tautaruna.nra.lv/forums/tema/46111-watch-joshua-vs-usyk-full-fight-live-online-free-ppv-boxing/

https://vocus.cc/article/614f01eefd8978000198e9d6

https://caribbeanfever.com/photo/albums/free-joshua-vs-usyk-live-stream-full-fight-on-tv

https://www.onfeetnation.com/photo/albums/free-joshua-vs-usyk-live-stream-full-fight-on-tv

http://zacriley.ning.com/photo/albums/free-joshua-vs-usyk-live-stream-full-fight-on-tv

https://pastebin.com/1w1dsDeD

https://ideone.com/4eJWHv

https://paiza.io/projects/YaBUI6vvJ8Y2HHo251HKmQ?language=php

http://cpp.sh/4i3y3

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_watch-joshua-vs-usyk-live-stream-in-uk-how-to-watch,49759771.html

https://steemit.com/boxing/@a2zstreams/watch-joshua-vs-usyk-live-stream-in-uk-or-how-to-watch

http://paste.jp/1027c565/

https://www.pastery.net/brwvxj/

https://vocus.cc/article/614f0137fd8978000198e5ff

https://blog.goo.ne.jp/hhasda/e/951e8da89d396e82276959318a285aa3

https://kukooo.com/promotion/offer-discounts/watch-joshua-vs-usyk-live-stream-in-uk-how-to-watch_i72758

https://www.deviantart.com/khelap/journal/Joshua-vs-Usyk-Reddit-streams-Live-ON-25-Sep-892922084

https://www.bikeanchorage.org/aztv/_boxing_anthony_joshua_vs_oleksandr_usyk_streaming_live_how_to_watch_joshua_vs_usyk_live_reddit_4k_stream_free

https://www.historycouncilvic.org.au/a2z/_live-tv_joshua_vs_usyk_fight_free_reddit_streams_broadcast_on_25_september

https://www.dmcityview.com/event/live-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-stream-online-reddit-free-official-channels-hd/

https://gulfcoastmotorsports.com/advert/live-tv-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-crackstream-reddit-stream-and-buffstream/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/watch-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-live-streaming-online-free/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/live%e2%88%9a-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-live-boxing-fight-card-streaming_hd/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/rbr-joshuavs-usyk-live-streaming-results-how-to-watch/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/bilasport-anthony-joshua-v-oleksandr-usyk-fight-livestream-reddit-free-25-september/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/live-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-stream-online-reddit-free-official-channels-hd/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/anthony-joshua-vs-usyk-reddit-live-stream-fight-on-sat-25-september/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/how-to-watch-live-stream-reddit-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-full-fight-25-september/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/envivo-a-joshua-vs-usyk-live-stream-reddit-on-25-september-saturday/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/boxing-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-reddit-live-how-to-watch-joshua-vs-usyk-fight-live-4k-stream-free/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/live-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-livestream-reddit-full-fight-live-tv/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/25-9-joshua-vs-usyk-free-live-how-to-watch-stream-date-time/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/live-tv-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-crackstream-reddit-stream-and-buffstream-alternatives/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/watch-live-stream-fight-of-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-full-fight-live-stream-free-online-on-reddit-youtube-twitter-dailymotion-discord-facebook-twitch/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/how-where-to-live-stream-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-fight-online/

https://jabbedu.com/groups/livestream-reddit-anthony-joshua-vs-oleksandr-usyk-fight/

Categories
News

Afghanistan virtually missing from New York Times front

College football season is one of the most exciting in American sports. With top teams going head-to-head on the gridiron, we have an exciting season ahead! Whether you want to see the current top-ranked team claim the national championship or are cheering for an underdog, follow this updated guide to enjoying a favorite pastime at a fraction of the cost. If you want to watch college football without cable TV, here are your best options.

Another good app for budget-conscious sports fans is Paramount+ — especially if their team is part of the Southeastern Conference. Paramount+ has replaced CBS All Access, which was already on a lot of fans’ radar because it gave them a way to watch football, golf and basketball. For prices starting at $4.99 per month, with a free trial, college football fans can watch whatever SEC games are being broadcast on CBS that week.

https://www.bankier.pl/forum/temat_fgfhgfhgfhgfhgfh,49296889.html

https://pastelink.net/3cbnz

https://paiza.io/projects/WDjNt6JRypmslQ9x9V7yug?language=php

https://bitbin.it/5xjHpA4C/

https://pastebin.com/Uaz6RJFt

https://console.mytrendingstories.com/article/compose/publish/ABb9kATFI0adDqdZswCs

https://sites.google.com/view/oklahoma-vs-tulane-crackstream/

https://sites.google.com/view/rncaa-oklahoma-vs-tulane-live-/

https://sites.google.com/view/buffstreamsoklahomavstulanecol/

https://sites.google.com/view/oklahomavstulanelivestreamingr/

https://sites.google.com/view/reddit-ncaa-streams-oklahoma-v/

https://sites.google.com/view/oklahoma-vs-tulane-live-ncaa-s/

https://sites.google.com/view/penn-state-vs-wisconsin-cracks/

https://sites.google.com/view/rncaapennstatevswisconsinlives/

https://sites.google.com/view/buffstreams-penn-state-vs-wisc/

https://sites.google.com/view/penn-state-vs-wisconsin-live-s/

https://sites.google.com/view/reddit-ncaa-streams-penn-state/

https://sites.google.com/view/pennstatevswisconsinlivencaast/

https://sites.google.com/view/ul-monroe-vs-kentucky-crackstr/

https://sites.google.com/view/rncaaulmonroevskentuckylivestr/

https://sites.google.com/view/buffstreams-ul-monroe-vs-kentu/

https://sites.google.com/view/ulmonroevskentuckylivestreamin/

https://sites.google.com/view/reddit-ncaa-streams-ul-monroe-/

https://sites.google.com/view/ulmonroevskentuckylivencaastre/

https://sites.google.com/view/colgatevsbostoncollegecrackstr/

https://sites.google.com/view/rncaacolgatevsbostoncollegeliv/

https://sites.google.com/view/buffstreams-colgate-vs-boston-/

https://sites.google.com/view/colgate-vs-boston-college-live/

https://sites.google.com/view/redditncaastreamscolgatevsbost/

https://sites.google.com/view/colgatevsbostoncollegelivencaa/

https://sites.google.com/view/westernmichiganvsmichigancolle/

https://sites.google.com/view/rncaawesternmichiganvsmichigan/

https://sites.google.com/view/buffstreamswesternmichiganvsmi/

https://sites.google.com/view/redditncaastreamswesternmichig/

https://sites.google.com/view/western-michigan-vs-michigan-c/

https://sites.google.com/view/temple-vs-rutgers-college-crac/

https://sites.google.com/view/rncaa-temple-vs-rutgers-colleg/

https://sites.google.com/view/buffstreams-temple-vs-rutgers-/

https://sites.google.com/view/redditncaastreamstemplevsrutge/

https://sites.google.com/view/templevsrutgerscollegelivencaa/

https://sites.google.com/view/holycrossvsuconncollegecrackst/

https://sites.google.com/view/rncaa-holy-cross-vs-uconn-coll/

https://sites.google.com/view/buffstreamsholycrossvsuconncol/

https://sites.google.com/view/stanford-vs-kansas-state-live-/

https://sites.google.com/view/reddit-ncaa-streams-stanford-v/

https://sites.google.com/view/stanfordvskansasstatelivencaas/

https://sites.google.com/view/armyvsgeorgiastatecrackstreams/

https://sites.google.com/view/rncaaarmyvsgeorgiastatelivestr/

https://sites.google.com/view/buffstreams-army-vs-georgia-st/

https://sites.google.com/view/fordham-vs-nebraska-live-strea/

https://sites.google.com/view/redditncaastreamsfordhamvsnebr/

https://sites.google.com/view/fordham-vs-nebraska-live-ncaa-/

https://sites.google.com/view/californiastatevsoregonlivestr/

https://sites.google.com/view/redditncaastreamscaliforniasta/

https://sites.google.com/view/californiastatevsoregonlivenca/

https://sites.google.com/view/ricevsarkansascrackstreamslive/

https://sites.google.com/view/rncaaricevsarkansaslivestreams/

https://sites.google.com/view/buffstreams-rice-vs-arkansas-c/

https://sites.google.com/view/lafayettevsairforcelivestreami/

https://sites.google.com/view/redditncaastreamslafayettevsai/

https://sites.google.com/view/lafayettevsairforcelivencaastr/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-army-vs-georgia-state-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/army-vs-georgia-state-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/buffstreams-army-vs-georgia-state-free-live-online-reddit-streaming/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/army-vs-georgia-state-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-army-vs-georgia-state-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/r-ncaa-college-football-army-vs-georgia-state-live-streams-crackstreams-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-army-vs-georgia-state-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-penn-state-vs-wisconsin-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/penn-state-vs-wisconsin-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/buffstreams-penn-state-vs-wisconsin-free-live-online-reddit-streaming-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/penn-state-vs-wisconsin-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-penn-state-vs-wisconsin-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-penn-state-vs-wisconsin-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-ul-monroe-vs-kentucky-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ul-monroe-vs-kentucky-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ul-monroe-vs-kentucky-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-ul-monroe-vs-kentucky-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-ul-monroe-vs-kentucky-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-western-michigan-vs-michigan-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/western-michigan-vs-michigan-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/western-michigan-vs-michigan-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-western-michigan-vs-michigan-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-western-michigan-vs-michigan-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-oklahoma-vs-tulane-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/oklahoma-vs-tulane-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/oklahoma-vs-tulane-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-oklahoma-vs-tulane-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-oklahoma-vs-tulane-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-fordham-vs-nebraska-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/fordham-vs-nebraska-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/fordham-vs-nebraska-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-fordham-vs-nebraska-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-fordham-vs-nebraska-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-fresno-state-vs-oregon-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/fresno-state-vs-oregon-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/fresno-state-vs-oregon-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-fresno-state-vs-oregon-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-fresno-state-vs-oregon-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-alabama-vs-miami-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/alabama-vs-miami-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/alabama-vs-miami-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-alabama-vs-miami-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-alabama-vs-miami-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/alabama-college-football-game-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-alabama-college-football-game-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-miami-oh-vs-cincinnati-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/miami-oh-vs-cincinnati-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/miami-oh-vs-cincinnati-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-miami-oh-vs-cincinnati-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-miami-oh-vs-cincinnati-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-indiana-vs-iowa-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/indiana-vs-iowa-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/indiana-vs-iowa-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-indiana-vs-iowa-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-indiana-vs-iowa-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-west-virginia-vs-maryland-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/west-virginia-vs-maryland-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-west-virginia-vs-maryland-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/west-virginia-vs-maryland-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-west-virginia-vs-maryland-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-louisiana-tech-vs-mississippi-state-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/louisiana-tech-vs-mississippi-state-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/louisiana-tech-vs-mississippi-state-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream-3/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-louisiana-tech-vs-mississippi-state-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-3/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-louisiana-tech-vs-mississippi-state-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-3/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-central-michigan-vs-missouri-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/central-michigan-vs-missouri-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/central-michigan-vs-missouri-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-central-michigan-vs-missouri-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-central-michigan-vs-missouri-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/umass-vs-pittsburgh-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-umass-vs-pittsburgh-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/umass-vs-pittsburgh-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-umass-vs-pittsburgh-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-umass-vs-pittsburgh-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-montana-state-vs-wyoming-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/montana-state-vs-wyoming-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/montana-state-vs-wyoming-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-montana-state-vs-wyoming-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-3/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-montana-state-vs-wyoming-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-4/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-northern-iowa-vs-iowa-state-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/northern-iowa-vs-iowa-state-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/northern-iowa-vs-iowa-state-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-northern-iowa-vs-iowa-state-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-northern-iowa-vs-iowa-state-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/ncaa-streams-louisiana-vs-texas-crackstreams-live-streaming-reddit/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/louisiana-vs-texas-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-buffstreams/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/louisiana-vs-texas-live-streaming-reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-live-stream/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/reddit-ncaa-college-football-streams-louisiana-vs-texas-live-ncaa-college-football-streams-free-2/

https://aircooledautos.com/advert/how-to-watch-louisiana-vs-texas-live-stream-ncaa-college-football-streams-reddit-2/ 

College Sports Live includes other sports like soccer, volleyball, and field hockey. You can also catch press conferences and similar events from many teams. Check out the full-lineup of upcoming programming here. You can watch games on your computer or through the College Sports Live Android, iOS, or Roku apps. And don’t forget the power of Chromecast, a favorite tool for cord cutters!college football on field depicted over a television set
Honorable Mention: Radio broadcasts online
You can always go old school. Hearing an audio feed of the big game is pretty simple. If you know the radio station that is affiliated with your team, you can probably put it into your Web browser and be presented with a play button immediately. If you don’t know what station airs your team’s games, then search for something like “ESPN Radio” “Boise State Football Radio Network” or “East Carolina Football Radio Network” and you can be listening over the Internet for free in a flash.